missing image


Quick Links


Course Materials

BYU Course Outcomes

  1. Demonstrate effort and discipline in crafting poetry and display a knowledge of its conventions.
  2. Read poetry models analytically, with an eye to authorial intention and technique and be able to articulate the same.
  3. Use correct grammar, punctuation, and an appropriate style in poetry.
  4. Write a variety of poems using literary models and following explicit instructions from the teacher.
  5. Revise intelligently, edit carefully, and share one’s work with others in the class.

Course Overview

I suspect Bill Stafford was right when he said, “To do poetry, you have to unlearn a lot of things educated people know.” If he is right, would the measure of your success in this course be how much you have unlearned? And of mine, how much I have untaught? Maybe so. By the end of this course, your poems will show how much you have unlearned of any limited and narrowing notions of poetry and any stultifying habits of language, thought, or imagination you may have started with. Often I find that my students’ best work goes beyond what I have expected. I can explain principles, analyze examples, suggest revisions—in other words, point directions; but ultimately, each writer decides whether or not and how far to go in the direction I have pointed.

Course Materials

Nims, John Frederick, and David Mason. Western Wind: An Introduction to Poetry. 4th ed. New York: McGraw, 1999.

This text is a good one for the unlearning/learning you need if you want to make poems. Its major subdivisions (previously mentioned) consider six dimensions of those kinds of verbally created imaginative experiences we call poems: senses, emotions, words, sounds, rhythms, and mind. The lessons in this course manual follow that structure, taking the chapters of Western Wind in sequence. (However, it wouldn't hurt you to read chapter 14, “Adam’s Curse: Inspiration and Effort,” at the start or anytime during the course; and you ought to browse through the “Anthology” at the rate of about twenty poems per lesson.) Hereafter, I will mainly refer to Western Wind with the acronym WW.

(Back to top)


Each lesson has a short list of objectives, followed by a “Reading Assignment” section outlining the steps you must take to complete and submit your assignment for that lesson. For reading assignments in your text, I give chapter numbers (e.g., “chapters 1 and 2” or “chapter 5”), for writing exercises from the text, I give the exercise letter or letter and number(s) (e.g., “A” meaning all of exercise A, or “B.1” meaning only item 1 under exercise B, or “C.1-3” meaning items 1 through 3 under exercise C), followed by the page numbers (in parentheses) where the exercises appear in WW. Note that in the discussion material, I use the acronym WW followed by page numbers to refer you to poems or significant discussions in your text. After each “Reading Assignment” section comes part of a continuing series of “Writing Suggestions Derived from WW” intended to give you ideas for poems to submit; you are free to use any of these suggestions (unless the instructions specify otherwise), or to draw suggestions of your own from the text. (Like mine, your suggestions should reflect the concerns or objectives of the assignment you apply them to.)

Remember to submit your assignments as Microsoft Word .DOC or .DOCX files. Name the file using this style—be sure to use your own name: ENGL319R_JaneSmith_WritingAssignment1.docx.

A Recommendation

If you have it in you to write and it won’t go away, write every day, preferably at a regular hour and for a regular length of time. It may help you to keep a writer’s notebook or journal to do at least some daily writing in: jot down lines and phrases and images that come to you, copy lines from poetry or prose that impressed you, and so forth.

I will be dropping a lot of names and titles in this course manual (as I already have) and occasionally using words you don’t know. I don’t explain or annotate heavily because I believe that if you are interested, you’ll take time to look things up and thus possess them more surely anyway. The discussion material I have written to accompany the lessons in the course manual intends to amplify, clarify, and (once or twice) correct what you read in Western Wind. I don’t often try to tell you how to write poems; I don’t know that I can, except to say something like, “Write the first line that comes to mind, then listen to it and see if it will tell you what the next one is, and so on.” It’s that simple and mysterious. What I can do, and have tried to do, is to help you pay attention to those aspects of language and experience that go into whole, well-made poems. And I can tell you a good deal about what to look at and what to do when you rewrite a poem. Everybody has at least the two primary requisites for writing poetry: language and experience. And I know that anybody can choose to become, by discipline, a better maker with words, sounds, images, rhythms, lines, sentences and forms.

(Back to top)


The final exam consists of 18 essay and fill-in-the-blank questions and it is closed-book and closed-notes. There is no time limit, but most students finish within two hours. The final exam is worth 15% of your grade. There is also a proctored midcourse exam worth 10% of your final grade. There are 16 essay and short answer questions and it is closed book and closed note (you will need to schedule a proctor for the final and the midcourse exams). The midcourse exam usually takes about an hour and a half to complete.

(Back to top)


In determining your final course grade, I will weight your work as follows:

Assignments (lessons 1–9) 25%
Midcourse Examination 10%
Final Examination 15%
Final Portfolio (lesson 10) 50%
Total 100%

Grade Scale

A 100–94
A- 93–90
B+ 89–87
B 86–83
B- 82–80
C+ 79–77
C 76–73
C- 72–70
D+ 69–67
D 66–63
D- 62–60
E (fail) 59 or below

(Back to top)

More About Poems

Initially, something you should unlearn/learn is that “poetry” should not be thought of as some kind of Platonic essence of which particular poems are imperfect embodiments, or of which each poem might luckily contain a precious drop if the Muse kindly shook her dewy nightgown over it. For now, take “poetry” as a handy collective noun referring to all of those artifacts we call “poems,” and then as implying the collection of characteristics most of them have in common. I wouldn’t attempt to define “poetry” here much further than that; Western Wind (your text) explores the traits of language that poems may employ and share in common with one another.

But “a poem” might be somewhat easier to define, using the old method of “genus” and “differentiae” (class + specific characteristics): first of all, a poem is obviously some sort of utterance in language (these days, usually a written one, though usually more fully realized when spoken), sharing its diction and syntax with all the other progeny of the mother tongue. But what separates it from other members of that proliferous brood-newspapers, novels, short stories, legal documents, private letters, detergent ads, etc.? These differences are the subject of this course and its text. Here I want to stress only two. First, a poem (as the Greek root of the word suggests: poiein, to make) is something made, not casual like a greeting on the street, nor a spontaneous outburst like a confession on a couch or a comfortable belch after dinner; second, a poem is something like a song in that its rhythm and its sounds are important in themselves and are to be listened to as elements of its meaning, not ignored or discarded as mere packaging. There is more to be said on these and other points, but the text will take care of most of that.

The poem is something made: this leads to another important introductory point. Many beginners think of poems as “self-expression.” I intend to focus not on expression but on making. If you are making something, don’t think of your expressive self but of your tools and materials. Concentrating on self-expression gets in the way of the attention that anyone, especially beginners, ought to give to the work being done; self-regard all too often softens writing into sentimentality. Cultivating regard for the work, not the ego, may help you take criticism with equanimity. You need a thick, sensitive skin.


I frankly and intentionally use the word “criticism” in this course manual. This doesn’t necessarily mean “fault-finding;” to me, it means a careful scrutiny by the light of the best standards I know. Although this sometimes amounts to fault-finding, its intention isn’t destructive, but surgical, and therefore constructive. When I look at a piece of writing, I don’t ask, “What’s he or she trying to say?” (What is some self expressing?) but rather, “What is this trying to be, and what’s helping/hindering it?” This may sound strange, but in good moments, I have a strong sense of what the center of gravity in a piece is and what its true sources of energy are; once I have found those, I can usually tell what is throwing it off balance or obstructing it. (To shift metaphors, I can discriminate signal from noise and try to tell you how to get less noise.) So attend closely to my criticism, without taking it personally (it’s never meant that way), and let it help you listen to what your own language, in your own drafts, is telling you. You have to learn the language well enough to trust it, and you have to become your own best critic.

Now, a caution: it is possible for your own developing critical sense to impede your writing. What you need is a certain kind of trust, and something to trust in. As Bill Stafford said, you have to trust your own language, since it’s the only one you have, and you have to be humble enough to use it and not wait around until you’re worthy enough to write the great poem that you think you ought to be writing. Be willing to make a few small poems well, and work from that. It may help if you keep in mind Peter Elbow’s idea (in his book Writing Without Teachers ) that inside you, as you write, you are a producer and an editor (I’ll call them Prod and Ed for short): when you’re getting out a first draft, don’t let Ed stick his axe in, or you’ll never get anything done. Let Prod have free rein while there’s a first draft to be written; afterward, turn Ed loose, hardnosed, ruthless, with a killer instinct for bad writing. This way you have a chance to enjoy both halves of the process. If you let the two interfere with each other, you’ll just get stuck—there is almost nothing worse.

A Final Note

It may help if I say a few things about what I look for in imaginative writing, whether fiction or poetry, or in any kind of writing.

The first criterion is skill in using the language for the work at hand. The language should be direct, fresh, exact, and economical; it must be free of cliches, stereotypes, and formulas; it must be concrete and kinetic, strong in the evocation of sensory images; its rhythms must avoid monotony and be sensitive and responsive to feelings evoked by the details, images, or events of the piece; it must not waste energy or space or tell me things I can easily and immediately infer for myself. I could go on, but I would be overdoing it. First of all, a poem must seem to be something spoken by “a real voice in a real body in a real world” (WW 7, 325), even if that world belongs to a fantasy. A poem ought not to preach; that is the function of sermons, and poems do other things much better anyway (unless the poet is Ezra Pound in his famous Cantos against “usura” and “vanity”). Similarly, in a story, the first thing is to get me, the reader, into the character’s mind and world; this is done by being truthful-true to the senses, to the way it feels to be in a concrete, physical world. If the story doesn’t do that, no great idea or magnificent theme will ever save it.

I look forward to reading your work. I know of few enjoyments keener or more lasting than those I get from reading well-written poetry or prose: a good line or sentence can keep me happy for several days. When I teach writing, what matters most to me is the quality of the work. A good piece of writing is worth a good deal of pain and sweat.

Copyright Notice

The materials used in connection with this online course are only for the use of students enrolled in this course for purposes associated with this course and may not be retained or further disseminated. Any copying or further dissemination of these materials may be subject to applicable U.S. Copyright Laws. For questions or more information, please visit the BYU Copyright Licensing Office website.

“Members of the BYU community who willfully disregard this Copyright Policy or the BYU Copyright Guidelines place themselves individually at risk of legal action and may incur personal liability for their conduct. The unauthorized use or distribution of copyrighted material, including unauthorized peer-to-peer file sharing, may subject individuals to civil and criminal liabilities, including actual and statutory damages, costs and fees of litigation, fines, and imprisonment

Violations of the Copyright Policy may result in university disciplinary action including termination of university enrollment or employment.” (Emphasis added. Excerpt taken from the BYU Copyright Policy)

(Back to top)

University Policy - Title IX Statement

Preventing & Responding to Sexual Misconduct

In accordance with Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, Brigham Young University prohibits unlawful sex discrimination against any participant in its education programs or activities. The university also prohibits sexual harassment—including sexual violence—committed by or against students, university employees, and visitors to campus. As outlined in university policy, sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking are considered forms of "Sexual Misconduct" prohibited by the university.

University policy requires all university employees in a teaching, managerial, or supervisory role to report all incidents of Sexual Misconduct that come to their attention in any way, including but not limited to face-to-face conversations, a written class assignment or paper, class discussion, email, text, or social media post. Incidents of Sexual Misconduct should be reported to the Title IX Coordinator at t9coordinator@byu.edu or (801) 422-8692. Reports may also be submitted through EthicsPoint at https://titleix.byu.edu/report or 1-888-238-1062 (24-hours a day).

BYU offers confidential resources for those affected by Sexual Misconduct, including the university’s Victim Advocate, as well as a number of non-confidential resources and services that may be helpful. Additional information about Title IX, the university’s Sexual Misconduct Policy, reporting requirements, and resources can be found at http://titleix.byu.edu or by contacting the university’s Title IX Coordinator.

(Back to top)

Accessibility Notice

BYU is committed to providing a working and learning atmosphere which reasonably accommodates persons with disabilities who are otherwise qualified to participate in BYU's programs and activities. In this spirit, BYU Independent Study aspires to improve web accessibility for users. While not required by law, the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 Levels A and AA provide a wide range of helpful recommendations to make Web content more accessible. BYU Independent Study strives to apply WCAG 2.0 recommendations where feasible, but may deviate from any recommendations that would result in an undue hardship to BYU Independent Study or alterations to program and course content and objectives. If you have questions about accessibility, or if you need to report problems with any accessibility features please see our Accessibilities and Accommodations Web Page.

(Back to top)

Course Policies

These policies are specific to this course. For additional information about general policies, please refer to Independent Study Course Policies page.


10 written assignments, no resubmissions


2 proctored exams (essay and short answer questions), may retake once for a fee. You must pass the final exam with at least 60% to receive credit for this course.

Retake an exam for a fee.

Getting Help

Please use the help menu in this course to contact Independent Study or your instructor. You can find a list of free tutors available to BYU Independent Study students on the Free Tutoring Services website.

Note: The Harold B. Lee Library website provides a number of online resources and librarians are available via phone, chat, and email to answer questions about library-related issues.

Inappropriate Use of Course Content

All course materials (e.g., outlines, handouts, syllabi, exams, quizzes, media, lecture content, audio and video recordings, etc.) are proprietary. Students are prohibited from posting or selling any such course materials without the express written permission of BYU Independent Study. To do so is a violation of the Brigham Young University Honor Code.

Copyright © 2016 Brigham Young University. All rights reserved.

Published by the
Department of Independent Study
Division of Continuing Education
Brigham Young University
120 MORC
Provo, Utah 84602-1514