Course Materials

Getting Help

Assignments

Exams

The prerequisites for this course are:

- Calculus, including derivatives and integrals.
- A first semester of introductory physics covering the laws of motion.

At BYU, the prerequisite courses are Math 112 (Calculus 1) and Physics 121 (Introduction to Newtonian Mechanics).

When you complete this course, you should be able to

- Solve problems and answer conceptual questions using the basics of fluid statics and dynamics, including Bernoulli's principle and Pascal's law.
- Answer conceptual questions and calculate changes in temperature, pressure, entropy and volume for quasistatic ideal gas processes and be able to determine work done and efficiency for gas engines, heat pumps, and refrigerators. Determine heat flow and temperatures in systems in steady state.
- solve problems and answer conceptual questions involving waves, using concepts such as wave speed, wavelength, frequency, superposition, beats, and resonance. Solve wave interference problems.
- Find the location and magnification of images in single- and multiple-lens/mirror systems by calculation and by ray tracing, and be able to work general problems in optics using Snell's law and specular reflection.
- Solve problems and answer conceptual questions in basic modern physics including special relativity, and quantum mechanics and nuclear physics.

You will need to purchase a calculus-based textbook and Logger Pro software.

To do this course, you will need Internet access and the following.

**Physics 123 Demos, Labs and CMBL.**These are available for you to download from the Physics 123 Website. You will use these files during this course. We recommend that you copy these folders onto your computer:- Demos: physics demonstrations,
- Labs: physics laboratory exercises, and
- CMBL: input files for Logger Pro.
*Logger Pro***installation CD**. Software by Vernier. Available for sale through the BYU Bookstore. You will use this software for analyzing images and videos in the lab exercises. You should install this software on your computer.

We recommend that you purchase Serway's *Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics*, and that you not use any edition earlier than the 6^{th} edition. The BYUstore sells a convenient custom edition of the textbook that contains only the chapters covered by this course.

You may also use any other calculus-based introductory physics textbook. The reading assignments are listed using the titles/topics of the sections in the textbook so that you can find similar material in other textbooks if you desire.

The chapter numbers between editions of Serway's *Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics*, and also other textbooks, will not match. Be sure that your book contains the topics you will need for this course.

The topics your textbook will need for this course are:

- Solids and Fluids
- Pressure
- Variation of Pressure with Depth
- Pressure Measurements
- Buoyant Forces and Archimede's Principle
- Fluids in Motion
- Fluid Dynamics
- Bernoulli's Equation

- Vibrations and Waves
- Properties of Waves
- Propagation of a Disturbance
- Analysis Model: Traveling Waves
- Waves on a String
- The Speed of Waves on a String
- Reflection and Transmission

- Sound Waves
- Pressure Variations in Sound Waves
- Speed of Sound Waves
- Intensity of Periodic Sound Waves
- The Doppler Effect

- Wave Interference
- Analysis Model: Waves in Interference
- Standing Waves
- Analysis Model: Waves under Boundary Conditions
- Resonance
- Standing Waves in Air Columns
- Beats: Interference in Time

- Temperature and Thermal Expansion
- Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
- Thermometers and the Celsius Temperature Scale
- The Constant-Volume Gas Thermometer and the Absolute Temperature Scale
- Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids
- Macroscopic Description of an Ideal Gas

- Energy in Thermal Processes
- Heat and Internal Energy
- Specific Heat and Calorimetry
- Latent Heat
- Energy Transfer Mechanisms in Thermal Processes

- The Laws of Thermodynamics
- Work and Heat in Thermodynamic Processes
- The First Law of Thermodynamics
- Some Applications of the First Law of Thermodynamics
- Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas
- Molar Specific Heat of an Ideal Gas
- Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas
- Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
- Heat Pumps and Refrigerators
- Reversible and Irreversible Processes
- The Carnot Engine
- Gasoline and Diesel Engines
- Entropy
- Changes in Entropy for Thermodynamic Systems
- Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

- Optics
- The Nature of Light
- Reflection and Refraction
- Measurements of the Speed of Light
- The Ray Approximation in Ray Optics
- Analysis Model: Wave under Reflection
- Analysis Model: Wave under Refraction
- Huygen's Principle
- Dispersion
- Total Internal Reflection

- Mirrors and Lenses
- Images Formed by Flat Mirrors
- Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors
- Images Formed by Refraction
- Images Formed by Thin Lenses
- Lens Aberrations
- The Camera
- The Eye
- The Simple Magnifier
- The Compound Microscope
- The Telescope

- Wave Optics
- Young's Double-Slit Experiment
- Analysis Model: Waves in Interference
- Change of Phase Due to Reflection
- Interference in Thin Films
- Introduction to Diffraction Patterns
- Diffraction Patterns from Narrow Slits
- Resolution of Single-Slit and Circular Aperatures
- The Diffraction Grating
- Polarization of Light Waves

- Relativity
- Special Relativity
- The Principle of Galilean Relativity
- The Michelson-Morley Experiment
- Einstein's Principle of Relativity
- Consequences of the Special Theory of Relativity
- The Lorentz Transformation Equations
- The Lorentz Velocity Transformation Equations
- Relativistic Linear Momentum
- Relativistic Energy
- The General Theory of Relativity

- Quantum Physics
- The Photelectric Effect
- The Compton Effect
- The Nature of Electromagnetic Waves
- The Wave Properties of Particles
- The Double-Slit Experiment Revisited
- The Uncertainty Principle

- Atomic Physics
- Atomic Spectra of Gases
- Early Models of the Atom
- Bohr's Model of the Hydrogen Atom
- The Quantum Model of the Hydrogen Atom
- The Wave Function for Hydrogen

- Nuclear Physics
- Some Properties of Nuclei
- Nuclear Binding Energy
- Nuclear Models
- Radioactivity
- The Decay Processes
- Natural Radioactivity
- Nuclear Reactions
- Interactions Involving Neutrons
- Nuclear Fission
- Nuclear Reactors
- Nuclear Fusion
- Radiation Damage

After you have registered for this course, go to the Physics 123 Website (gardner.byu.edu/123is/), click on "New Student" and fill out the form. You may need to enter your BYU Net ID and password if you are not already logged into MyBYU. You will be notified by e-mail when you have been granted access to the assignments and quizzes. Once this happens, return to the Physics 123 Website and click on "Continue." This will take you to the course home page. Follow the instructions there.

If you have questions or concerns about any of your lessons or exams, please contact your instructor at the course e-mail address, p123is@physics.byu.edu. Because of the nature of this course, personal assistance from the instructor will be very limited. If you have trouble with the course, we recommend that you find local help. Perhaps you should even hire a personal tutor. When you are working the assigned problems, you will automatically receive hints when you enter incorrect answers. (See details in the course materials.) The instructor will not help you until you have received all of the hints for a problem. This means that you have already lost points before you are eligible for assistance. At that time, you will probably not need assistance, since almost all of the students can do the problems once they have seen all of the hints.

The course is divided into ten lessons:

- Fluids
- Waves
- Wave Interference
- Heat and Work
- Heat engines
- Optics
- Light Interference
- Relativity
- Quantum Physics
- Nuclear Physics

Each lesson contains a study guide, activities and assignments, and a quiz.

The study guide contains a list of the most important concepts you should learn. Each concept can usually be described by some mathematical equation. It is important to learn these equations, but it is also important to understand them. Be able to explain each symbol and each term in the equation as well as what physical situations the equation can be applied to. Also be able to explain the concepts in words without reference to equations.

The activities and assignments include reading assignments, videos, and problem assignments, including lab exercises.

The reading assignment is from the textbook and contains the information you need about the concepts in this course. You should do more than just read the material in the assignment. You should study it and think about it. Pay special attention to the concepts listed in the study guide, and find the equations that describe these concepts mathematically. The videos help you to visualize the concepts. These videos include live demonstrations as well as interactive animations. These visual aids reinforce what you learned from the reading assignment.

The problem assignments are the most challenging part of the lesson. Now you must apply what you learned from the reading assignments and videos. You will often discover that you did not understand the material in the reading assignment as well as you thought you did. Solving problems is one way to test your true understanding of the material.

Solving problems involves mathematical equations. Some problems will simply require you to plug some numbers into an equation and solve for the unknown quantity. Other problems will go beyond this and require you to combine several equations, some even from previous lessons. An important goal of this course is to help you improve your problem solving skills. On the average, each lesson contains 12 problems.

Some of the assigned problems will actually be lab exercises. A video will show a student performing the lab exercise. You may obtain from the video data you need to complete the calculations required by the exercise.

We want you to understand clearly the purpose of the problem assignments. They will help you master the physics content of the lessons, as well as help you improve your problem-solving skills. They are not designed to specifically prepare you for the quizzes or the final exam. As you will see, most problems are nothing like any question in the quizzes or the final exam. The value of successfully completing the problem assignments is independent of any other part of the course.

There is a closed-book quiz at the end of each lesson. The questions in the quizzes are multiple choice and do not require any calculations. They emphasize the understanding of the concepts, especially in the context of real physical situations. Doing well on the quiz is an indication that you have truly mastered the material in the lesson. On the average, there are 9 questions on each quiz.

The final exam will be proctored. It will be closed book and closed notes and will contain about 40 questions in the same style as the questions in the quizzes at the end of each lesson. The use of calculators is not allowed on this exam. You should prepare for the final exam in the same way that you prepared for each quiz. In addition, you should review the quizzes.

To pass this course, you must earn 60% of the total possible points. You must also earn at least 60% on the final exam. No matter how well you do on the problem assignments and quizzes, you will not pass this course unless you pass the final exam. Once each lesson is completed, it cannot be resubmitted.

The score for each lesson consists of points for the problem assignment and for the quiz. Each problem in the problem assignment is worth 5 points, except for multiple-choice problems and other problems with non-numerical answers. Those are each worth 2 points. Each quiz question is worth 4 points. Not all lessons have the same weight in the final grade. Some lessons have shorter assignments and quizzes and therefore have less weight.

Here is the weight of each lesson as well as the final exam. **You may not resubmit lessons.**

Lesson 1 | 7% |

Lesson 2 | 7% |

Lesson 3 | 7% |

Lesson 4 | 7% |

Lesson 5 | 8% |

Lesson 6 | 9% |

Lesson 7 | 7% |

Lesson 8 | 5% |

Lesson 9 | 5% |

Lesson 10 | 8% |

Final Exam | 30% |

TOTAL | 100% |

Grades will be based on the percentage of points you earned during the course.

Grading Scale | |||
---|---|---|---|

A | 93%–100% | C | 73%–76% |

A− | 90%–92% | C− | 70%–72% |

B+ | 87%–89% | D+ | 67%–69% |

B | 83%–86% | D | 63%–66% |

B− | 80%–82% | D− | 60%–62% |

C+ | 77%–79% | E (fail) | 59% or below |

The materials used in connection with this online course are only for the use of students enrolled in this course for purposes associated with this course and may not be retained or further disseminated. Any copying or further dissemination of these materials may be subject to applicable U.S. Copyright Laws. For questions or more information, please visit the BYU Copyright Licensing Office website.

“Members of the BYU community who willfully disregard this Copyright Policy or the BYU Copyright Guidelines place themselves individually at risk of legal action and may incur personal liability for their conduct. **The unauthorized use or distribution of copyrighted material, including unauthorized peer-to-peer file sharing, may subject individuals to civil and criminal liabilities, including actual and statutory damages, costs and fees of litigation, fines, and imprisonment**…

Violations of the Copyright Policy may result in university disciplinary action including termination of university enrollment or employment.” (Emphasis added. Excerpt taken from the BYU Copyright Policy)

In accordance with Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, Brigham Young University prohibits unlawful sex discrimination against any participant in its education programs or activities. The university also prohibits sexual harassment—including sexual violence—committed by or against students, university employees, and visitors to campus. As outlined in university policy, sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking are considered forms of "Sexual Misconduct" prohibited by the university.

University policy requires all university employees in a teaching, managerial, or supervisory role to report all incidents of Sexual Misconduct that come to their attention in any way, including but not limited to face-to-face conversations, a written class assignment or paper, class discussion, email, text, or social media post. Incidents of Sexual Misconduct should be reported to the Title IX Coordinator at t9coordinator@byu.edu or (801) 422-8692. Reports may also be submitted through EthicsPoint at https://titleix.byu.edu/report or 1-888-238-1062 (24-hours a day).

BYU offers confidential resources for those affected by Sexual Misconduct, including the university’s Victim Advocate, as well as a number of non-confidential resources and services that may be helpful. Additional information about Title IX, the university’s Sexual Misconduct Policy, reporting requirements, and resources can be found at http://titleix.byu.edu or by contacting the university’s Title IX Coordinator.

BYU is committed to providing a working and learning atmosphere which reasonably accommodates persons with disabilities who are otherwise qualified to participate in BYU's programs and activities. In this spirit, BYU Independent Study aspires to improve web accessibility for users. While not required by law, the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 Levels A and AA provide a wide range of helpful recommendations to make Web content more accessible. BYU Independent Study strives to apply WCAG 2.0 recommendations where feasible, but may deviate from any recommendations that would result in an undue hardship to BYU Independent Study or alterations to program and course content and objectives. If you have questions about accessibility, or if you need to report problems with any accessibility features please see our Accessibilities and Accommodations Web Page.

These policies are specific to this course. For additional information about general policies, please refer to Independent Study Course Policies page.

10 instructor-graded quizzes completed through a separate web application. No resubmissions allowed.

1 proctored, computer-graded final exam. (One retake is allowed for a fee.) You must pass the final exam to pass the course.

Please use the help menu in this course to contact Independent Study or your instructor. You can find a list of free tutors available to BYU Independent Study students on the Free Tutoring Services website.

**Note:** The Harold B. Lee Library website provides a number of online resources and librarians are available via phone, chat, and email to answer questions about library-related issues.

All course materials (e.g., outlines, handouts, syllabi, exams, quizzes, media, lecture content, audio and video recordings, etc.) are proprietary. Students are prohibited from posting or selling any such course materials without the express written permission of BYU Independent Study. To do so is a violation of the Brigham Young University Honor Code.

Copyright © 2016 Brigham Young University. All rights reserved.

Published by the

Department of Independent Study

Division of Continuing Education

Brigham Young University

120 MORC

Provo, Utah 84602-1514

USA

COPYRIGHT NOTICE

*The materials used in connection with this online course are only for the use of students enrolled in this course for purposes associated with this course and may not be retained or further disseminated. Any copying or further dissemination of these materials may be subject to applicable U.S. Copyright Laws. For questions or more information, please visit the BYU Copyright Licensing Office website. “Members of the BYU community who willfully disregard this Copyright Policy or the BYU Copyright Guidelines place themselves individually at risk of legal action and may incur personal liability for their conduct. The unauthorized use or distribution of copyrighted material, including unauthorized peer-to-peer file sharing, may subject individuals to civil and criminal liabilities, including actual and statutory damages, costs and fees of litigation, fines, and imprisonment… Violations of the Copyright Policy may result in university disciplinary action including termination of university enrollment or employment.” (Emphasis added. Excerpt taken from the BYU Copyright Policy)*

Copyright notice for specific, individual copies

All copies are intended for non-commercial, educational purposes in connection with this registered course and only for students enrolled in this course. Any copying or further dissemination of these materials may be subject to applicable U.S. Copyright Laws.